- Pwd – this is known as present working directory. This is usually used for finding out the present working directory on the terminal. As this is a ambiguous situation can be created on terminal so it is better to check every time to find out the present working directory.
- Echo – echo is a common command used to return the argument as system output. This is more often used in script to output a string or a particular result.
example: echo “hello world.”
- Ssh – this is known as secure shell. It is a service that allows a system administrator to access a remote server. This service works on session basis. It can be accessed from different location at the same with similar or even from different users. this is a cool tool to work remotely over internet or over network
example: ssh ip-address/hostname
- scp – this is known as secure copy. If the ssh service is enabled and running on both the machines then we can copy a file from one machine to another using this command. It have almost similar parameters like cp. The basic difference between cp and scp is cp works in local directories and scp works over network.
example: scp /etc/passwd ip-address:/etc/passwd.bkp
- Sort – this command is simply used to sort the characters on a file. It shorts according to alphabetic order or numerical order. Usually it takes the first character as the first argument. But we can change the field of line. The fields are separated by white space.
example: sort data.txt
- Grep – grep is a very useful command in linux terminal. It is mostly used to find few particular characters or some word from a file. Also it can be used to find the location of the file. Using different parameter it will work differently.
Example: grep –i “food” /home/data.txt
- Whoami – this command confirms the present user of the shell. It has a very useful use in shell. It shows the user as output on the shell. It also shows the owner of the session on terminal. If we are going to use su command then we can may need this command to confirm if we are properly using the superuser or not.
- History – this command is used to audit commands used on a single session. If the session is closed it still can be found from the session files. But it is better to use history to confirm if there is any mistake is happened.
- Clear – this command is used to clear the terminal so that it looks like it is a new fresh terminal. But it creates a gap between the previous works and puts the command line on the top of the terminal.
- Ping – this is a very popular and platform free command. It is being used for so many reasons. But mostly to verify the network response of some particular IP or host.
example: ping ip-address